+ http://fuguita.org/

FuguIta -Guide

by Yoshihiro Kawamata Translated by Alfredo Vogel


All images are copyright of Yoshihiro Kawamata unless stated otherwise

Disclaimer Notice

#This document is not a guarantee that FuguIta will work on your devices. In creating this document, the author (and the translators) tried to be accurate and clear, but acknowledge that they are not responsible for any damages caused as a result of implementing the contents of this document. Please use with care and ask if in doubt. If you have found any unclear explanation, missing parts, or differences between your device environment and this document, please let us know by sending an email to the author: kaw@on.rim.or.jp #

1.What is FuguIta ? FuguIta is a live system based on the OpenBSD operating system (OS). FuguIta can be downloaded and used free of charge, and you can easily utilize the functions of OpenBSD by simply booting FuguIta from a DVD-R / DVD-RW or USB disk drive on your PC. In addition, FuguIta supports a wide variety of boot methods, so you can not only use it as LiveDVD / LiveUSB , but also operate the network test environment easily and quickly, or use dedicated software by just turning on the power. It can also be used for building a dedicated system that can be run on any computer. This FuguIta guide covers how to use FuguIta ; how to create boot media, boot into FuguIta , basic usage of FuguIta and procedure and settings for advanced applications. If you need HELP visit the FuguIta BBS site at http://fuguita.org/index.php?FuguIta%2FBBS If you don't have much experience with Unix-like operating systems and want to know the basics of Unix, see �Find out how to use Unix�. If you have experience using other Unix-like operating systems such as Linux or FreeBSD and would like to know more about OpenBSD , please refer to �Find out how to use OpenBSD� in this document. 2. Create FuguIta media In this chapter, we will show you how to create a DVD or USB memory disk to boot FuguIta . There are two main ways to use FuguIta . One is to burn FuguIta on a DVD-R or DVD-RW and boot from it, which is called "LiveDVD method". The other is to boot from a USB drive, which is called "LiveUSB method". FuguIta works in the same way regardless of whether you use the LiveDVD version or the LiveUSB version, but since each has its own characteristics, it is better to use it according to your requirements. � In general, USB memory reads data faster than DVD, so it takes less time for the LiveUSB version of FuguIta to complete the boot process. � Some older PCs do not boot well from a USB stick or do not support booting from the USB port itself. On the other hand, most DVD drives are manufactured according to common standards, so almost all of them start up FuguIta without any problems. � Since "live systems" such as FuguItas are not normally installed on hard disks, all data is stored in memory. For this reason, all data created in a session will usually be lost when the system is shut down. The LiveUSB version of FuguIta has a data storage area, and you can save various settings, files, etc. in this area and restore them when the system starts next time. � Since the unit price of recording media is cheaper for optical media such as DVD-R than for USB memory, it can be operated on different devices at the same time, used with the media set, or created and distributed in large quantities. The LiveDVD version is more suitable for such use. In general, it can be said that the LiveDVD version is suitable if you want certainty and economy of operation, and the LiveUSB version is suitable if you place importance on performance and convenience. MEMO You can also use the"best of both worlds" method of using both the LiveDVD version and the LiveUSB version at the same time. Using this technique, you can use, for example, the LiveUSB version of FuguIta on a PC that does not support USB booting or save and load data on the LiveDVD version of FuguIta . To get started with FuguIta for the first time, follow these steps: 1. Download the file from the FuguIta distribution site 2. Decompress or unzip the downloaded file 3. Write the extracted file to a DVD-R or USB memory Each procedure is explained below. 2.1 Download FuguIta FuguIta is free software. All editions, including the latest version of FuguIta , are published on the Internet and can be freely downloaded and used. There are four download sites for FuguIta . https://jp1.dl.fuguita.org/ https://jp2.dl.fuguita.org/ https://de.dl.fuguita.org/ https://fr.dl.fuguita.org/ The content of each site is the same, so you can download it from either site. From within Japan, we recommend downloading at jp1.dl.fuguita.org or jp2.dl.fuguita.org. Use the site nearest to your location for maximum download speed. When you access these sites, you will see the contents shown on the image. The filenames containing "FuguIta -" are the distribution images of FuguIta . The meaning of the file name is as follows. FuguIta -6.9-amd64-202106244.iso.gz

�- | | | | | | | | | | | +-> File compression format. | | | | | -Compress using the gz ... gzip command | | | | | -Compress using the xz ... xz command | | | | | (Currently only available in gzip format) | | | | +-> File type: | | | | # Iso ... ISO image for writing DVD-R/DVD-RW | | | | # Img ... Raw image for writing to USB memory | | | | # Tar ... It is an archive format that | | | | collects files. | | | +-> Release (version) of FuguIta | | | # It is in the format of "date" and "serial number". | | | #The serial number is when you make two or more FuguItas | | | in a day. It will increase one by one | | +->Supported platforms. | | FuguIta currently supports three platforms: i386, amd64, | | arm64 | | Select the one that corresponds to the CPU model of your PC. | +--> This is the version of OpenBSD that is the basis of this +->FuguIta . Select and download the file depending on whether you are creating a LiveDVD or LiveUSB , or your PC is an Intel 32-bit CPU or 64-bit CPU. Note: Supported architectures. As explained above, it is necessary to select either i386 or amd64 depending on the CPU type of the PC you are using, but amd64 is compatible with the conventional i386. It is the most common architecture in use. Most of the PCs currently in use are CPUs with amd64 architecture. arm64 is a version of FuguIta for the single board computer "Raspberry Pi 3". After the download is complete, uncompress the downloaded file. The following is an example of extracting a DVD-R / DVD-RW file from the shell command line on a Unix-like OS > gzip -d FuguIta -6.0-amd64-201612251.iso.gz When the extraction is completed, the file size will be about 1 gigabyte, and the file name will also have the .gz extension. Note: "Raspberry Pi 3" version of FuguIta Is a tar format archive file. Expand as follows.: >tar xzvf FuguIta -6.7-arm64-202006244.tar.gz Please refer to the README-arm64 file included in this archive file for how to create and start the Raspberry Pi 3 version of FuguIta . 2.2 Create a live DVD of FuguIta To make a LiveDVD version of FuguIta , prepare a writable DVD media such as DVD-R or DVD-RW, and write the ISO file. The following is an example of writing a DVD on OpenBSD : MEMO: Since ISO burning software is widely available on other OS, you can create a live DVD of FuguIta using Windows, Linux and MacOS 2.3 Create a live USB of FuguIta To make a LiveUSB version of FuguIta , prepare a USB memory with a size of 2 GB or more, and write the downloaded and expanded IMG format file to it. The following is an example of writing using OpenBSD : Caution: The "/dev/rsd0c" part in the above example is the name of the device to write to. This depends on the connection status of the peripherals of your PC or the type of operating system that executes the dd command. If you execute this command, all the data on the specified device will be erased, so be sure to check in advance whether the destination drive name is correct. MEMO: Similar to ISO image writing software, various software programmes for writing raw images are available in other OS. Even if you use a USB memory of 2 GB or more, the part exceeding 2GB will not be used. If you want to create a LiveUSB version of FuguIta that matches the size of the USB drive memory, refer to "Installing FuguIta that matches the capacity of the USB memory" in this guide. 2.4 Boot device selection When you insert the DVD or USB memory with FuguIta into your PC and start it FuguIta will boot. MEMO: Even if you insert a DVD or USB memory and start the computer, Windows or Linux, that had previously been installed may start instead of FuguIta . This is because the PC has a priority setting for which device to use for booting, and this setting gives priority to booting the internal hard disk over DVD and USB drives. To enable booting FuguIta , change the setting in the BIOS menu of the PC to boot from the DVD or USB memory instead of the internal hard disk. The BIOS menu of the PC differs depending on the model, so please refer to the instruction manual of your PC or search on the Internet to find out how to access BIOS on your device. When FuguIta starts, the following message is displayed: > OpenBSD /amd64 CDBOOT 3.46 > boot> > booting cd0a: /bsd-fi.mp: 12997960 + 2769928 + 2277408 + 0 + 708608 \ [806285 + 128 + 1028280 + 751803] = 0x145cb88 > entry point at 0xffffffff81001000 > [using 2587528 bytes of bsd ELF symbol table] > Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993 > The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. > Copyright (c) 1995-2020 OpenBSD . All rights reserved. Https:www.OpenBSD .org > > OpenBSD 6.7-stable (RDROOT.MP) # 1: Fri Jun 5 09:41:45 JST 2020 > root@nimbus9.localnet: /opt/fi/6.7/sys/arch/amd64/compile/RDROOT.MP > real mem = 1056825344 (1007MB) > avail mem = 1010286592 (963MB) > mpath0 at root > ~ (a lot more info is displayed here) ~ > scsibus4 at vscsi0: 256 targets > softraid0 at root > scsibus5 at softraid0: 256 targets > uhub1: illegal enable change, port 1 > root on rd0a swap on wd0b dump on rd0b > Normally the screen display turns white on a blue background after the kernel has booted. This message is displayed by the kernel or operating system itself. This display shows the detection of devices and the memory of the PC and the connection status of peripheral devices, and are an important source of information when troubleshooting problems such as startup issues. When the OpenBSD kernel boot is complete, you will see the FuguIta banner. Following the banner display of FuguIta , the disk drives installed or connected to the PC will be checked and the one which has FuguIta system installed will be shown. In the example below, it says "FuguIta 's operating device (s): cd0a.", So you can see that the LiveDVD version of FuguIta is set in an optical drive such as a CD, DVD, or Blu-Ray. Therefore, enter cd0a at the "Which is FuguIta 's operating device?" prompt . MEMO: After that, you will enter various values, but if "default: xxxx" is displayed in those prompts, it means that xxxx is the default value. In this case, just pressing the "Enter" key as shown in the example below is considered to be xxxx Enter. *> scanning partitions: cd0a sd1d *> FuguIta 's operating device (s): cd0a *> Which is FuguIta 's operating device? [Default: cd0a]-> <<<<<<< Press Enter to accept default value MEMO: In the OpenBSD operating system, disk devices are named according to the following rules. First few letters are for the Device type ▪ cd Optical drives such as CDs, DVDs and Blu-Ray ▪ wd hard disk (IDE, SATA connection) ▪ sd USB memory, SD card, Memory Stick, SATA connection, SCSI connection, USB connection hard disk, etc. ▪ fd floppy disk The number that follows ... If multiple devices of that type are connected, it will increase from 0. The last letter ... Partitions within the device are generally used as follows; ◦ c Represents the entire device ◦ b Represents an OpenBSD swap partition in the device ◦ a, d ~ h A partition that stores OpenBSD files. The a partition is often used as the root file system ◦ i, j, etc Partitions for Windows and Linux are often referred to as i, j partition. Other than c partition and b partition, such partition name may be created by the user and there are cases where the above is not followed. 2.5 Temporary File System: tmpfs size setting Next, we need to adjust settings related to memory. The example below first reports that this PC has about 1007 megabytes of memory installed. The user then enters how many megabytes of that 1007MB of memory will be allocated to tmpfs. FuguIta usually does not use the hard disk built into the PC, so instead it reserves an area in memory to hold directories and files. OpenBSD has a mechanism called tmpfs (Temporary File System) for that purpose, and FuguIta uses this tmpfs. If you specify 0 as the allocation size of tmpfs, it will be allocated automatically according to the installed memory. Since 0 is also the default value at the time of input, just pressing the "Enter" key will assume that 0 has been input. Normally, you can just accept the default value of zero. > user memory: 1007 MB > Enter tmpfs size in MB. (0MB is auto) > [default: 0MB]-> <<<

press Enter > tmpfs size will be automatically allocated MEMO: If you enter a value other than 0, that value will be the maximum file size that tmpfs can hold. For example, if you enter 100 in the example above, files and directories can hold up to about 100 megabytes in total, and the remaining megabytes will be reserved for programme execution. 2.6 Boot mode selection Let us now consider the boot mode selection. There are six boot modes, from mode 0 to mode 5, and at first boot we select the standard mode 0. The six boot modes in FuguIta are: 0: fresh boot --standard mode as a live system 1: fresh boot --less memory, faster boot (/usr is non-writable, can't pkg_add) 2: fresh boot --works using only RAM (about 1GB or more of RAM required) 3: boot with retrieving saved files from storage device or enter passphrase for an encrypted volume 4: boot with retrieving saved files from floppy disk 5: interactive shell for debugging 2.7 Keyboard layout settings Next is the keyboard language setting. For a Japanese keyboard, enter "jp" or "jp.swapctrlcaps". When you enter "jp.swapctrlcaps", the positions of the "Control" and "Caps" keys are swapped, and the "Control" key is to the left of the alphabet "A" key. If you are accustomed to key assignments such as the Emacs editor and Bash shell, this may be a good solution Enter keyboard type like this: >pc-xt / pc-at keyboard: >us de de.nodead fr fr.dvorak dk dk.nodead it uk jp sv sv.nodead no no.nodead us declk us.dvorak us.colemak us.swapctrlcaps us.iopener uk.swapctrlcaps jp.swapctr lcaps fr.swapctrlcaps fr.swapctrlcaps.dvorak be.swapctrlcaps us.swapctrlcaps.dvorak us.swapctrlcaps.colemak us.swapctrlcaps.iopener es be ru ua sg sg.nodead sf sf.nodead pt lt la br tr tr.nodead pl hu si cf cf.nodead lv nl nl.nodead is is.nodead ee ee.nodead >keyboard type-> dk <

enter your language code from the list (dk for Danish, for example) kbd: keyboard mapping set to dk 2.8 Setting administrator password Following the keyboard settings, we now have to set the administrator password. On Unix-like operating systems such as OpenBSD , system administrators are called "super users" and other users are called "ordinary users". The superuser is assigned the user name of "root" as default, so set a password for root. Changing password for root. New password: <

enter the password: input is not displayed Retype new password: <

Enter again for confirmation: input is not displayed MEMO: In OpenBSD , if the entered password is too short or too simple, a warning message will be displayed and the password will not be accepted. The following type passwords are recommended for use: � 6 or more single-byte characters � Mix uppercase and lowercase letters � Mix numbers, symbol letters, control letters, etc. 2.9 Network related settings Now we will enter the network-related settings. CAUTION: The network settings differ depending on the environment of the network to connect to. If a computer with settings that do not match the network environment is connected, it may have an unexpected effect on the network and the connected computer. When connecting FuguIta to a company or public network, it is recommended to consult with the network administrator in advance about the connection settings. 2.10 Host name settings First, give a name (host name) to the PC that runs FuguIta . In this example the host name is "fugu-demo". host name (without domain)-> fugu-demo 2.11 IP protocol version selection The following is the setting of the IP protocol version to be used. IP version (s) to use: 4, 6, 46, 64 or n 46: IPv4 preferred over IPv6 in address resolution 64: reversed to 46 n: stand alone operation [46]-> Enter "4" to communicate using only the IPv4 protocol, "6" to use only the IPv6 protocol, and "46" or "64" to use both IPv4 and IPv6. If you enter "n", the settings related to the IP network will not be made and the login screen will be displayed. If you hit the "Enter" key, it is considered that you have entered "46". Normally, you can hit the "Enter" key. MEMO: When using both IPv4 and IPv6, both "46" and "64" can be specified, but the DNS inquiry order is different. In "46", IPv4 is prioritized for address enquiries, and conversely, in "64", IPv6 enquiries are prioritized. 2.12 Network interface settings Next, we must set the network interface. First, a list of network interfaces connected to this PC and their status is displayed. The following display is the output of the network configuration command ifconfig, and in this example, three network interfaces, lo0, em0, and enc0, are displayed. This is followed by "Available network interface (s): em0", indicating that the available network interface is em0. As in the previous examples, em0 is displayed as the input default, so I only press the key to specify em0. >ifconfig -a lo0: flags = 8008 mtu 32768 priority: 0 groups: lo em0: flags = 8802 mtu 1500 lladdr 52:54:00:12:34:56 priority: 0 media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex) status: active enc0: flags = 0 <> priority: 0 groups: enc status: active

Available network interface (s): em0 network interface to setup [em0]-> <

hit Enter to accept default MEMO: Since lo0 and enc0 are special interfaces, they are excluded from the setting candidates. "em" is the name given to Intel's Gigabit Ethernet interface. Even if an Ethernet interface or WiFi interface other than em is connected, they will be output to the ifconfig display. You can find out about individual network interfaces in the online manuals built into OpenBSD . 2.13 Domain name settings Next, enter the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) of your PC. The FQDN is the name of this computer that you entered earlier, plus the domain name. The "hostname" for this computer is already displayed, so enter the rest of the domain. FQDN of this host-> fugu-demo.localnet <

localnet entered MEMO: The domain name is not officially registered and managed in the home network, so give it an appropriate name. Generally, .local and .localnet are often used. If your network is managed by your organization, consult the administrator of that network for this information. 2.14 WiFi settings After that, the following setting items will appear only when you select a WiFi device as the network interface. The name of the wifi network is shown as "my-wifinet" in this example. Wi-Fi SSID-> my-wifinet <

Enter the SSID of the WiFi you want to connect to WPA Key-> my-wpa-secrect-key <

Enter WPA key If you enter only ENTER for the WPA key and do not set it, you will be asked for the WEP key during connection. We strongly recommend that you use the WPA method instead of WEP, as the WEP method is easily decrypted. Wi-Fi SSID-> my-wifinet WPA Key-> WEP Key-> my-wep-unsecured-key MEMO: WiFi devices require firmware supplied by the device manufacturer, and it may be necessary to download and install the firmware for operation. In this case, set up a wired LAN and connect to the Internet, then refer to the section on using WiFi devices that require firmware download and set up WiFi . If you enter only ENTER for the WEP key input, the WiFi connection will be attempted without either the WPA/WEP key. This is used, for example, when connecting to unprotected public WiFi networks. 2.15 IP address and DNS settings Finally, there are DNS and IP address related settings. MEMO: DNS (Domain Name System) is a mechanism for searching for an IP address such as "" for a domain name such as "fuguita.org". When a computer starts communication, it first asks a DNS server to search for "fuguita.org", and then communicates using the IP address returned as the search result, "". There are three patterns for DNS settings. � Manual setting ... Directly specify the IP address of the DNS server for which you want to make an enquiry. � DHCP ... Automatically configures a DNS server using a mechanism called DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). � No DNS ... Select this if you want to communicate by directly specifying the IP address without using DNS. If you the Enter key as shown in the example below, the settings will be made by DHCP, and the DNS server will be set automatically. DHCP also configures the IP address related settings for this PC. MEMO: To use DHCP, a DHCP server must be installed in the network in advance. DHCP servers are often installed in home network devices and public Wi-Fi spots. DNS setup; � Manual: Enter up to three IPv4/IPv6 addresses, separated by spaces � DHCP: <

Just press ENTER. � no DNS: <

Enter "none". On the other hand, if you manually set the IP address of the DNS server as shown below, then you will also make the settings related to the IP address of this PC itself. (If "none" is specified and DNS-less operation is selected, IP address related settings will be set in the same way.) DNS setup; Manual: Enter up to three IPv4/IPv6 addresses, separated by spaces DHCP: Just press ENTER. no DNS: Enter "none". -> <

IP address of DNS server IPv4 addr of this host-> <

IP address of this PC netmask-> <

= Netmask for this network default route-> <

= Default route for this network 2.16 Login method selection Finally, specify how you want to log in. There are two ways to log in, one is to log in from the console screen and the other is to log in from the X server login screen (xenodm). In the example below, only the "Enter" key is entered to select login from the default console. Do you login with C) console or X) Window System? [default: C]-> <

Enter "x" to log in from the X Window System. That's all for the startup settings. After performing the remaining initialization process, the login screen will be displayed. _ / Setup for FuguIta ends. / / OpenBSD 's boot sequence will follow. / ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Automatic boot in progress: starting file system checks. kbd: keyboard mapping set to dk pf enabled machdep.allowaperture: 0-> 2 machdep.lidaction: 1-> 0 .....shortened output ......... starting network daemons: sshd smtpd sndiod. running rc.firsttime Path to firmware: http://firmware.openbsd.org/firmware/6.7/ Installing: vmm-firmware starting local daemons: cron. fuguita: disabled KARL because of read-only media Thu Jul 2 06:51:57 UTC 2020 OpenBSD / amd64 (fugu-demo.localnet) (tty00) login: When the login prompt "login:" is displayed, this PC is ready for use. 3. Using FuguIta (general use) This chapter describes the basic procedure once the system is booted. In addition, we will introduce information which is useful for those who are not familiar with Unix-like OS and those who have experience using other Unix-like OS. 3.1 Log in and out as a system administrator When FuguIta boot is complete, the OpenBSD operating system login screen is displayed. At first, only the superuser account can log in, so enter "root" at the "login:" prompt and the password set at startup at the "Password:" prompt. OpenBSD / amd64 (fugu-demo.localnet) (tty00) login: root <

type root here Password: <

type the root password (no echo here) OpenBSD 6.7-stable (RDROOT.MP) # 1: Fri Jun 5 09:41:45 JST 2020 Welcome to OpenBSD : The proactively secure Unix-like operating system. Please use the sendbug(1) utility to report bugs in the system. Before reporting a bug, please try to reproduce it with the latest version of the code. With bug reports, please try to ensure that enough information to reproduce the problem is enclosed, and if a known fix for it exists, include that as well. You have new mail. fugu-demo # If the login is successful, the shell prompt "#" will be displayed and any command entered will be executed. As an example, let's execute the command ps. fugu-demo # ps -aux USER PID% CPU% MEM VSZ RSS TT STAT STARTED TIME COMMAND root 68528 3.6 0.1 868 884 00 Sp 6: 51AM 0: 01.89 -ksh (ksh) root 1 0.0 0.1 884 532 ?? I 6:40 AM 0: 01.68 / sbin / init root 14453 0.0 0.1 792 644 ?? Ip 6:43 AM 00: 00.47 / sbin / slaacd _slaacd 53995 0.0 0.1 812 784 ?? Ip 6:43 AM 0: 00.81 slaacd: engi _slaacd 33982 0.0 0.1 800 732 ?? Ip 6:43 AM 0: 00.81 slaacd: fron root 55401 0.0 0.1 712 548 ?? IU 6:44 AM 00: 00.17 dhclient: em _dhcp 78950 0.0 0.1 840 700 ?? Ip 6:44 AM 00: 00.10 dhclient: em root 86344 0.0 0.2 520 2184 ?? IpU 6:46AM 00: 00.64 syslogd: [pr _syslogd 45328 0.0 0.1 1128 1488 ?? Sp 6:46AM 0: 01.04 / usr / sbin / sy root 73380 0.0 0.1 836 584 ?? IU 6:46AM 00: 00.27 pflogd: [pri _pflogd 53476 0.0 0.1 876 540 ?? Sp 6: 46AM 0: 02.97 pflogd: [run _ntp 63935 0.0 0.3 1016 2868 ?? S